Such entities include but are not restricted to fire hydrants, caves, roads, rivers, lakes, hills, valleys, oceans, and the occasional barn. Such maps can be found on the news, the Internet, in your car, and on your mobile phone. Being able to associate a feature with a particular geometric form and to determine the feature type are central to map abstraction, facilitate mapping, and the application of GISs.

Though there are general guidelines about map generalization, there are no universal standards or requirements with regard to the generalization of maps and mapping. Building upon the previous discussion about the geometric form of geographic features, maps typically rely on three geometric objects: the point, the line, and the polygon or area. The important thing to note is that the definition of a point is analogous to a location that is defined by longitude and latitude.

Annotation is used to identify particular geographic features, such as cities, states, bodies of water, or other points of interest. Notwithstanding the purpose of the map or GIS project at hand, it is critical that definitions of features are clear and remain consistent. Changes in both temperature and elevation tend to be gradual over relatively large areas. Map generalization refers to resolving conflicts that arise on a map due to limited space, too many details, or too much information.

refers to the process of resolving conflicts associated with too much detail, too many features, or too much information to map.

As previously discussed, maps are a representation of the earth.

This idea is known as a ‘model’.

2008. Though there are general guidelines about map generalization, there are no universal standards or requirements with regard to the generalization of maps and mapping. Furthermore, decisions about how to classify, simplify, or exaggerate features and how to symbolize objects of interest simultaneously fall under the realms of art and science (Slocum et al.

A point is defined by x and y coordinates, a line is defined by two points, and a polygon is defined by a minimum of three points. are well defined and are easy to locate, measure, and count, and their edges or boundaries are readily defined.

What’s more is that such images are in living color and of very high resolution.

Normally, the author and publisher would be credited here. Complementing the graphical elements described previously is annotation or text.

Changes in both temperature and elevation tend to be gradual over relatively large areas. Generally, deforestation refers to the reduction of forest area. More general attributes may include measurements such as tree density per acre, average canopy height in meters, or proportions like percent palm trees or invasive species per hectare in the forest. In computational thinking, when we decompose problems, we then look for patterns among and within the smaller problems that make up the complex problem. The masking or displacement of detail to increase clarity or legibility, The selection of detail for inclusion or omission from the map, The exaggeration of features for emphasis. In pattern recognition we looked at the problem of having to draw a series of cats. Annotation or text is also commonly used on maps and facilitates map interpretation.
What are specific details or characteristics? Map abstraction refers to the process of explicitly defining and representing real-world features on a map.

noun an abstract or general idea or term. In addition to the seemingly objective decisions made behind the choices of map scale and map projection are those concerning what to include and what to omit from the map. It is also the filtering out of specific details.

How can naturally caused forest fires be differentiated from those started by humans? From the selection of the appropriate map scale and map projection to deciding which features to map and to omit, mapping is a complex blend of art and science. The purpose of a map will certainly guide some of these decisions, but other choices may be based on factors such as space limitations, map complexity, and desired accuracy. Such information is often vital to the proper interpretation of a map. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Can a forest exist in a swamp or wetland? Features can also be categorized as either discrete or continuous. These characteristics are relevant. Such changes can be made to the respective size, shape, color, and patterns of points, lines, and polygons. Map generalizationThe process by which real-world features are simplified in order to be represented on a map. For instance, to continue the deforestation example, determining whether a forest is a rainforest or whether a forest is in a protected park may be important. Definition - What does Abstraction mean? need to know what size and colour these are.

Abstraction is one of the four cornerstones of Computer Science. Map Generalization. Such questions are not trivial in the context of mapping and GISs. Which three elements of generalization would you change? More information is available on this project's attribution page.

Ultimately, this increased geographical awareness and appreciation of maps promotes the sound and effective use and application of a GIS. In addition, each cat has specific characteristics, such as black fur, a long tail, green eyes, a love of salmon, and a loud meow. Mapping forests regularly with a GIS is a logical way to monitor deforestation and has the potential to inform policies regarding forest conservation efforts.

This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. For instance, fire hydrants and geysers are considered point-like features; rivers and streams are linear features; and lakes, countries, and forests are areal features. Failure to be explicit, consistent, and precise will return incorrect; inconsistent; and error-prone maps, analyses, and decisions based on such maps and GISs. This is “Map Abstraction”, section 2.3 from the book Geographic Information System Basics (v. 1.0). The process by which real-world features are simplified in order to be represented on a map. Legends usually consist of a title that describes the map, as well as the various symbols, colors, and patterns that are used on the map. In order to draw a basic cat, we do need to know that it has a tail, fur and eyes. So what exactly is a forest? Our team of exam survivors will get you started and keep you going. Harlow, England: Longman.

Which three elements are the most effective? If you are unable to get your own abstraction licence, you may be able to enter into an … An abstraction can be seen as a compression process, mapping multiple different pieces of constituent data to a single piece of abstract data; based on similarities in the constituent data, for example, many different physical cats map to the abstraction "CAT". For that matter, what is the difference between a swamp and wetland? There are also numerous text fonts and styles that are incorporated into maps. Abstraction is the process of filtering out – ignoring - the characteristics of patterns that we don't need in order to concentrate on those that we do. In this sense the process of abstraction entails the identification of similarities between … For that matter, what is the difference between a swamp and wetland? It's also one of the least understood ideas in programming, partially for semantic reasons.