Berengar of Friuli, had attempted to undermine the power of the Germany monarchy, although by 961, Otto had suppressed his relatively confined rebellion and proved his worth to a highly grateful papacy. Although an arch-conservative, Bismarck introduced progressive reforms—including universal male suffrage and the establishment of the first welfare state—in order to achieve his goals. Otto the Great (Nov. 23, 912—May 7, 973), also known as Duke Otto II of Saxony, was known for consolidating the German Reich and making significant advances for secular influence in papal politics. Both Gilselbert and the duke of Franconia were killed in battle. Best Answers. Meanwhile, back in Germany, Otto's son by Edith, Liudolf, joined together with several German magnates to revolt against the king. Otto was crucial in the development of the institution and ideology of the Holy Roman Emperor. By 947 he had solved them by absorbing the duchy of Franconia into his direct rule and by handing over the others, Lorraine, Swabia, and Bavaria, to members of his family. Respected and honored by the time of his death eight years later, Bismarck quickly became a quasi-mythic figure invoked by political leaders calling for strong German leadership—or for war. In addition, royal judges were excluded from having any judicial influence in areas controlled by the Church, and no royal officers were permitted to extract taxes from such areas. The next phase of accomplishment surrounds the emergence of a distinctly Ottonian system of governing. Men like Charlemagne and Alcuin had already demonstrated how the creation of a strong administrative bedrock could provide an emerging European empire with an overriding sense of longevity, and the Ottonians sought to emulate their predecessors. Another major Ottonian achievement was the conversion of the Slavs (or Wends). Scholars know little of his childhood, but it is believed he engaged in some of Henry's campaigns by the time he reached his late teens. In the 1880s Bismarck set aside his conservative impulses to counter the socialists by creating Europe’s first modern welfare state, establishing national healthcare (1883), accident insurance (1884) and old age pensions (1889).


Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)—also known as the “Iron Chancellor”—was Chancellor of the newly-united German Empire from 1862 to 1890. The father of a large family, Troy taught his children at home and remains an inveterate bibliophile, accomplished poet, keen cyclist and enjoys photographing and researching country churches, ancient woodland, old ruins and other sacred places.

In 1847 he married and was sent to Berlin as a delegate to the new Prussian parliament, where he emerged as a reactionary voice against the liberal, anti-autocratic Revolutions of 1848.

This behaviour was viewed with absolute contempt by the new Emperor, because “the Pope had not only broken the oath which he had sworn to him on the body of St. Peter, but had also invoked the aid of the enemies of Christendom.”[11] Consequently, Otto summoned a delegation of bishops to Rome and, as John XII fled to Tivoli, charged him in his absence with.

), Hrosvithæ Liber Tertius, PhD dissertation (St. Louis University, 1942), p. 39.

Monasteries were governed by their respective abbots and responsibility for the collection of taxes now lay with the abbeys themselves.

His support of learning resulted in the so-called Ottonian Renaissance, which helped to keep learning alive for the future. The request was denied, but although Otto had been rather presumptuous in his determined albeit premature efforts to mount the imperial throne, the privileged holder of the Holy Spear of Longinus – which, centuries later would play a vital role in the expansionist aims of both Napoleon and Hitler (and which, today, is housed within the relatively safer confines of the Treasure House at Austria’s Hofsburg Museum) – knew that it would only be a matter of time before he achieved his ultimate Germanic destiny.

Otto’s new role as King of Germany was put to the test twice within the first three years of his reign, and the Bavarian (938) and Franconian (939) rebellions – led by Arnulf and Everard respectively – forced Otto to react swiftly. The next three books in The Fairytale Keeper series –The Countess’s Captive, The Baseborn Lady, and The Traitor’s Target—will debut later this year. Become a member to unlock this It may have been added in December, 963, when Otto deposed John for instigating an armed conspiracy with Berengar, as well as for what amounted to conduct unbecoming a pope. Otto then agreed to sign the original pact on the condition that a Pope could not be consecrated until he had given his oath of loyalty to the Emperor himself. He was elected king Aug. 7, 936 and crowned emperor Feb. 2, 962. 13.

Bismarck was less circumspect in his conduct of the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71). Thankmar was killed, Eberhard of Bavaria was deposed, and Eberhard of Franconia submitted to the king. According to Timothy Reuter, “Otto’s succession has also been seen as representing the triumph of a new principle, that of the indivisibility of the new kingdom.”[1] Indeed, although Germany in the early Tenth Century was sub-divided into four distinct duchies – Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria and Lotharingia – Otto undoubtedly intended to use his coronation as a means of extracting adequate respect and obedience from those dukes who controlled the frontiers of the Saxon kingdom on his behalf.

Paul Von Hindenburg (1847-1934) was a German World War I military commander and president.

All rights reserved. Otto von Bismarck is important to history because he was instrumental, if not solely responsible, for bringing about a united Germany under one king,... Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. Otto’s half-brother Thankmar joined the dukes of Bavaria and Franconia in rebellion in 938. By 949 he had disposed of all the existing dukes and replaced them with his own family members. Also known as “the father of nuclear chemistry”, Hahn crusaded against the use of nuclear weapons after World War II. answer! He died in 973 and was succeeded by his only son as Otto II.

When Otto I became King of Germany in 936, his coronation at Aachen was heavily imbued with the symbolic trappings of monarchical power. Yet Henry, who felt he should be king himself in spite of his father's wishes, conspired to murder Otto in 941. Otto I, byname Otto the Great, German Otto der Grosse, (born Nov. 23, 912—died May 7, 973, Memleben, Thuringia), duke of Saxony (as Otto II, 936–961), German king (from 936), and Holy Roman emperor (962–973) who consolidated the German Reich by his suppression of rebellious vassals and his decisive victory over the Hungarians. Otto I was the son of Henry the Fowler and his second wife Matilda. Create a free website or blog at Thirdly, I will examine how the King granted ‘immunity’ to the German Church, laid the foundations for an Ottonian Renaissance, assisted the Church in its conversion of the Slavs and, finally, managed to successfully manipulate the papacy. The Battle of Lechfeld (near Augsburg) – “which Widukind, Ruotger, Adalbert of St. Maxim, not to mention the poet of the Modus Ottinc, acclaimed more or less panagyrically as a unique triumph”[6] – has gone down in history as one of the most crucial in the whole development of medieval Christendom. His father was a fifth-generation Junker (a Prussian landowning noble), and his mother came from a family of successful academics and government ministers. The word Holy was not used for another two centuries, but Otto the Great has been recognised by historians as in effect the first of the Holy Roman Emperors and the most powerful European ruler of his time. Otto was the son of Henry the Fowler and his second wife, Matilda. Indeed, Henry and Liudolf knew full well that the government of Lombardy was comparatively weak and each had an eye on the kingdom’s wealthiest cities. - Siegfried... "Today I will be joined by Derrick Jensen from the Deep Green Resistance; Keith Preston from Attack the System to... By Alison McDowell, The following is a presentation that I had planned to make as an invited guest at... "All power is truly in the hands of the people, and in the end the people will win." Who created the Three Emperors League in 1872? In 1997 he graduated in History and Theology at the University of Kent and, in 2014, earned a teaching certificate in English Language from Cambridge University. His Italian policy and the acquisition of the imperial crown constituted a link with the old Carolingian tradition and was to prove a great responsibility for the German people in the future. In 959, Otto achieved another decisive military victory when he was asked to lead a second expedition to Italy on behalf on Pope John XII. Otto I was the son of Henry the Fowler and his second wife Matilda. Educated in the cadet corps, Ludendorff was named chief of staff to the Eighth Army after the outbreak of war and earned renown for the victory at the Battle of more. Indeed, although Germany in the early Tenth, ] As his subjects raised their right hands amid, It remains a fact, however, that medieval families, already been so much to the fore at his coronation.”[, treachery and betrayal “led to a swift closing of ranks”[, biographer, Widukind, portrays him in his, such that he had saved Christendom from the Hungarians.”[, incompatible with governmental responsibility”[, Between 948 and 948, the conversion of the, ] Consequently, Otto summoned a delegation of bishops, Unsurprisingly, therefore, on 4th December. Bismarck was the man responsible for uniting the various German Kingdoms of the 1800’s into one unified country under the Prussian Kaisers. The first was a Papal Bull authorising the erection of an archbishopric at Magdeburg, and the second a document known as the Ottonianum in which Otto imitated the Frankish Donations of Pepin and Charlemagne. But the fact still remains that Otto I managed to ride the storm and served as a focal point from which Germany could begin to counteract the Hungarian invasion itself. From its more, Under the cover of darkness in the early morning hours of May 19, 1941, the most formidable battleship to have ever been built slipped into the Baltic Sea on its maiden voyage. TROY SOUTHGATE is from Crystal Palace, South London, and has been an underground writer and activist for thirty-five years. Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (German: Otto der Große, Italian: Ottone il Grande), was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973. The support of the papacy itself was essential to the whole Ottonian system of governing, but Otto soon discovered that he himself was also vital to the long-term interests of the papacy. Henry named Otto his successor, and a month after Henry's death, in August of 936, the German dukes elected Otto king.